U.S. Constitution & N.M. Constitution


The U.S. Constitution

 Preamble

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE IV,

Section 4 

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Read the entire text of the U.S. Constitution here:     https://constitutionus.com    

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

Go Washington – President and deputy from Virginia New Hampshire – John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman Massachusetts – Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King Connecticut – Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman New York – Alexander Hamilton New Jersey – Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton Pensylvania – B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris Delaware – Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom Maryland – James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll Virginia – John Blair, James Madison Jr. North Carolina – Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson South Carolina – J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler Georgia – William Few, Abr Baldwin Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

1st Ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, The Bill of Rights

Amendment 1 – Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment 2 – Right to Bear Arms. Ratified 12/15/1791.

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed

Amendment 3 – Quartering of Soldiers. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment 4 – Search and Seizure. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment 5 – Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment 6 – Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment 7 – Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment 8 – Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment 9 – Construction of Constitution. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment 10 – Powers of the States and People. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

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NEW MEXICO CONSTITUTION 

On June 20, 1910, President William H. Taft authorized the New Mexico territory to hold a constitutional convention in preparation for being admitted to the nation as a state. On October 3, 1910, convention delegates elected convened at Santa Fe and drafted a constitution, which was approved by voters on January 21, 1911. New Mexico became the 47th state when Taft signed a proclamation admitting the state into the union.

The Constitution of the State of New Mexico is the fundamental document governing the State.

New Mexico does not have the statewide initiative process. The initiative enables citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed statutes and, in some states, constitutional amendments on the ballot. Twenty-four states have an initiative process.

However, New Mexico does have the popular referendum process. The popular referendum is a device which allows voters to approve or repeal an act of the legislature. If the legislature passes a law that voters do not approve of, voters may gather signatures to demand a popular vote on the law.  

PREAMBLE

We the people of New Mexico, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty, in order to secure the advantages of a state government, do ordain and establish this constitution.

Read the complete text of New Mexico Constitution here:        https://ballotpedia.org/New_Mexico_Constitution